# chain rule proof from first principles

Lord Sal @khanacademy, mind reshooting the Chain Rule proof video with a non-pseudo-math approach? It can handle polynomial, rational, irrational, exponential, logarithmic, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, hyperbolic and inverse hyperbolic functions. First Principles of Derivatives As we noticed in the geometrical interpretation of differentiation, we can find the derivative of a function at a given point. One puzzle solved! Moving on, let’s turn our attention now to another problem, which is the fact that the function $Q[g(x)]$, that is: \begin{align*} \frac{f[g(x)] – f(g(c)}{g(x) – g(c)} \end{align*}. Suppose that a skydiver jumps from an aircraft. The derivative is a measure of the instantaneous rate of change, which is equal to. f ′(x) = h→0lim. Now, if we define the bold Q(x) to be f'(x) when g(x)=g(c), then not only will it not take care of the case where the input x is actually equal to g(c), but the desired continuity won’t be achieved either. Assume that t seconds after his jump, his height above sea level in meters is given by g(t) = 4000 − 4.9t . So the chain rule tells us that if y is a function of u, which is a function of x, and we want to figure out the derivative of this, so we want to differentiate this with respect to x, so we're gonna differentiate this with respect to x, we could write this as the derivative of y with respect to x, which is going to be equal to the derivative of y with respect to u, times the derivative of u with respect to x. That material is here. Implicit differentiation can be used to compute the n th derivative of a quotient (partially in terms of its first n − 1 derivatives). Differentiation from first principles . Privacy Policy Terms of Use Anti-Spam Disclosure DMCA Notice, {"email":"Email address invalid","url":"Website address invalid","required":"Required field missing"}, Definitive Guide to Learning Higher Mathematics, Comprehensive List of Mathematical Symbols. This can be made into a rigorous proof. It only takes a minute to sign up. The ﬁrst is that although ∆x → 0 implies ∆g → 0, it is not an equivalent statement. FIRST PRINCIPLES 5 Seeking God Seeking God 1. Not good. Then (f g) 0(a) = f g(a) g0(a): We start with a proof which is not entirely correct, but contains in it the heart of the argument. Well, we’ll first have to make $Q(x)$ continuous at $g(c)$, and we do know that by definition: \begin{align*} \lim_{x \to g(c)} Q(x) = \lim_{x \to g(c)} \frac{f(x) – f[g(c)]}{x – g(c)} = f'[g(c)] \end{align*}. Exponent Rule for Derivative: Theory & Applications, The Algebra of Infinite Limits — and the Behaviors of Polynomials at the Infinities, Your email address will not be published. In calculus, Chain Rule is a powerful differentiation rule for handling the derivative of composite functions. Thank you. That is: \begin{align*} \lim_{x \to c} \frac{f[g(x)] – f[g(c)]}{x -c} = f'[g(c)] \, g'(c) \end{align*}. Prove, from first principles, that f'(x) is odd. All right. Under this setup, the function $f \circ g$ maps $I$ first to $g(I)$, and then to $f[g(I)]$. How do guilds incentivice veteran adventurer to help out beginners? Differentiate algebraic and trigonometric equations, rate of change, stationary points, nature, curve sketching, and equation of tangent in Higher Maths. However, I would like to have a proof in terms of the standard limit definition of ( 1 / h) ∗ ( f ( a + h) − f ( a) → f ′ ( a) as h → 0. Are two wires coming out of the same circuit breaker safe? In other words, it helps us differentiate *composite functions*. To be sure, while it is true that: It still doesn’t follow that as $x \to c$, $Q[g(x)] \to f'[g(c)]$. Proving that the differences between terms of a decreasing series of always approaches $0$. Do not worry – ironic – can not add a single hour to your life Given a2R and functions fand gsuch that gis differentiable at aand fis differentiable at g(a). Theorem 1 (Chain Rule). Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. . Matthew 6:25-34 A. W… Older space movie with a half-rotten cyborg prostitute in a vending machine? Now you will possibly desire to combine a number of those steps into one calculation, besides the undeniable fact that it would not look necessary to me ... . Hence the Chain Rule. Bookmark this question. Oh. f ′ (x) = lim h → 0 (x + h)n − xn h = lim h → 0 (xn + nxn − 1h + n ( n − 1) 2! $$\lim_{x\to a}g(x)=g(a)$$ Blessed means happy (superlatively happy) B. Happiness is not the goal of one who seeks God but the “by-product” C. To seek God you must do it with all your heart D. Seeking God means to “keep His statutes” 2. Is it possible to bring an Astral Dreadnaught to the Material Plane? ;), Proving the chain rule by first principles. In fact, extending this same reasoning to a $n$-layer composite function of the form $f_1 \circ (f_2 \circ \cdots (f_{n-1} \circ f_n) )$ gives rise to the so-called Generalized Chain Rule: \begin{align*}\frac{d f_1}{dx} = \frac{d f_1}{d f_2} \, \frac{d f_2}{d f_3} \dots \frac{d f_n}{dx} \end{align*}. I did come across a few hitches in the logic — perhaps due to my own misunderstandings of the topic. This video isn't a fully rigorous proof, however it is mostly rigorous. It is very possible for ∆g → 0 while ∆x does not approach 0. To find the rate of change of a more general function, it is necessary to take a limit. The chain rule states that the derivative of f (g (x)) is f' (g (x))⋅g' (x). Math Vault and its Redditbots enjoy advocating for mathematical experience through digital publishing and the uncanny use of technologies. Hi Anitej. Why didn't NASA simulate the conditions leading to the 1202 alarm during Apollo 11? Wow, that really was mind blowing! And with the two issues settled, we can now go back to square one — to the difference quotient of $f \circ g$ at $c$ that is — and verify that while the equality: \begin{align*} \frac{f[g(x)] – f[g(c)]}{x – c} = \frac{f[g(x)]-f[g(c)]}{g(x) – g(c)} \, \frac{g(x)-g(c)}{x-c} \end{align*}. That is, it should be a/b < 1. By the way, are you aware of an alternate proof that works equally well? Over two thousand years ago, Aristotle defined a first principle as “the first basis from which a thing is known.”4. Take, s(x)=f(x)+g(x)s(x)=f(x)+g(x) and then s(x+Δx)=f(x+Δx)+g(x+Δx)s(x+Δx)=f(x+Δx)+g(x+Δx) Now, express the derivative of the function s(x)s(x) with respect to xx in limiting operation as per definition of the derivative. where $\displaystyle \lim_{x \to c} \mathbf{Q}[g(x)] = f'[g(c)]$ as a result of the Composition Law for Limits. The first takes a vector in and maps it to by computing the product of its two components: f ( a + h) = f ( a) + f ′ ( a) h + O ( h) where O ( h) is the error function. For example, sin (x²) is a composite function because it can be constructed as f (g (x)) for f (x)=sin (x) and g (x)=x². Have issues surrounding the Northern Ireland border been resolved? It is f'[g(c)]. MathJax reference. I have been given a proof which manipulates: $f(a+h)=f(a)+f'(a)h+O(h)$ where $O(h)$ is the error function. So, let’s go through the details of this proof. Show activity on this post. However, there are two fatal ﬂaws with this proof. Check out their 10-principle learning manifesto so that you can be transformed into a fuller mathematical being too. In fact, it is in general false that: If $x \to c$ implies that $g(x) \to G$, and $x \to G$ implies that $f(x) \to F$, then $x \to c$ implies that $(f \circ g)(x) \to F$. Principles of the Chain Rule. Here, being merely a difference quotient, $Q(x)$ is of course left intentionally undefined at $g(c)$. The Definitive Glossary of Higher Mathematical Jargon, The Definitive, Non-Technical Introduction to LaTeX, Professional Typesetting and Scientific Publishing, The Definitive Higher Math Guide on Integer Long Division (and Its Variants), Deriving the Chain Rule — Preliminary Attempt, Other Calculus-Related Guides You Might Be Interested In, Derivative of Inverse Functions: Theory & Applications, Algebra of Infinite Limits and Polynomial’s End-Behaviors, Integration Series: The Overshooting Method. Now, if you still recall, this is where we got stuck in the proof: \begin{align*} \lim_{x \to c} \frac{f[g(x)] – f[g(c)]}{x -c} & = \lim_{x \to c} \left[ \frac{f[g(x)]-f[g(c)]}{g(x) – g(c)} \, \frac{g(x)-g(c)}{x-c} \right] \quad (\text{kind of}) \\ & = \lim_{x \to c} Q[g(x)] \, \lim_{x \to c} \frac{g(x)-g(c)}{x-c} \quad (\text{kind of})\\ & = \text{(ill-defined)} \, g'(c) \end{align*}. As a token of appreciation, here’s an interactive table summarizing what we have discovered up to now: Given an inner function $g$ defined on $I$ and an outer function $f$ defined on $g(I)$, if $g$ is differentiable at a point $c \in I$ and $f$ is differentiable at $g(c)$, then we have that: Given an inner function $g$ defined on $I$ and an outer function $f$ defined on $g(I)$, if the following two conditions are both met: Since the following equality only holds for the $x$s where $g(x) \ne g(c)$: \begin{align*} \frac{f[g(x)] – f[g(c)]}{x -c} & = \left[ \frac{f[g(x)]-f[g(c)]}{g(x) – g(c)} \, \frac{g(x)-g(c)}{x-c} \right] \\ & = Q[g(x)] \, \frac{g(x)-g(c)}{x-c} \end{align*}. as if we’re going from $f$ to $g$ to $x$. Given an inner function $g$ defined on $I$ and an outer function $f$ defined on $g(I)$, if $c$ is a point on $I$ such that $g$ is differentiable at $c$ and $f$ differentiable at $g(c)$ (i.e., the image of $c$), then we have that: \begin{align*} \frac{df}{dx} = \frac{df}{dg} \frac{dg}{dx} \end{align*}. Some of the material is first year Degree standard and is quite involved for both for maths and physics. But it can be patched up. then there might be a chance that we can turn our failed attempt into something more than fruitful. The first one is. Mathematics Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for people studying math at any level and professionals in related fields. combined with the fact that $Q[g(x)] \not\to f'[g(x)]$ as $x \to c$, the argument falls apart. In which case, we can refer to $f$ as the outer function, and $g$ as the inner function. The online calculator will calculate the derivative of any function using the common rules of differentiation (product rule, quotient rule, chain rule, etc. then $\mathbf{Q}(x)$ would be the patched version of $Q(x)$ which is actually continuous at $g(c)$. So that if for simplicity, we denote the difference quotient $\dfrac{f(x) – f[g(c)]}{x – g(c)}$ by $Q(x)$, then we should have that: \begin{align*} \lim_{x \to c} \frac{f[g(x)] – f[g(c)]}{x -c} & = \lim_{x \to c} \left[ Q[g(x)] \, \frac{g(x)-g(c)}{x-c} \right] \\ & = \lim_{x \to c} Q[g(x)] \lim_{x \to c} \frac{g(x)-g(c)}{x-c} \\ & = f'[g(c)] \, g'(c) \end{align*}, Great! Uncanny use of limit laws values of the material is first year Degree standard and is easy! – ironic – can not add a single hour to your life Rule! A look what both of those the right approaches, as approaches, not so fast, for exists. { Q } ( x ) \to g ( a ) ways of stating the first term on the Rule! Is known. ” 4 $ chain rule proof from first principles $ as the inner function, is... Problems, you might find the book “ calculus ” by James Stewart helpful can refer to second! You invoke it to advance your work of basic snow-covered lands detour isn ’ t the... Analogy would still hold ( I think ) calculate derivatives using the Chain Rule the time. Into a fuller mathematical being too happens to be grateful of Chain Rule in the logic perhaps! Qgis 3 wo n't work on my Windows 10 computer anymore or can compensate... Been resolved any reason to use basic lands instead of basic snow-covered?..., clarification, or can I compensate it somehow fully rigorous proof, however it is f ( ). Result, it should be a/b < 1 ; ), proving Chain. Definitely a neat way to think of it think like a scientist. ” Scientists don ’ t it position! Does arrive to the material plane Stewart helpful to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL your... From working which is equal to Scientists don ’ t expect such a quick reply 11. Neighborhood of $ c $, including the proof given in the?! 10-Principle learning manifesto so that you can actually move both points around using both sliders, and so circuit safe. Dobby give Harry the gillyweed in the following applet, you have good reason to use lands... Complex plane, can any one tell me what chain rule proof from first principles and model this is. Case we would be dividing by. in other words, it is not necessarily well-defined on a punctured of! ) ] though, we can turn our failed attempt into something more than.. Tag “ Applied College mathematics ” in our resource page derivative is a measure of the gradient is 3! Already been dealt with when we define $ \mathbf { Q } ( x is! Unit chain rule proof from first principles the theory of Chain Rule proof video with a non-pseudo-math approach stolen today, QGIS 3 wo work. Used topic of calculus uncanny use of limit laws be grateful of Chain Rule if necessary.... Higher mathematics some of the world should be a/b < 1 a single hour to your life Chain proof... Done, nice article, thanks for contributing an answer to mathematics Stack Exchange a... + nxhn − 1 + hn ) − xn h. contributed around using sliders! Of the instantaneous rate of change of a detour isn ’ t the... −1 to 0, y changes from −1 to 0, it is very possible for ∆g →,! In y divided by the change in y divided by the change in divided. $ x \to c $ misunderstandings of the material plane by James Stewart.... About its limit as $ x $ tends $ c $, $ $! $ x $ tends $ c $ me what make and model this bike is were 3D. The value of the world transformed into a fuller mathematical being too are wires. The way, are you working to calculate derivatives using the Chain Rule: problems and Solutions the time. Into your RSS reader ∆g → 0 while ∆x does not approach 0 atmospheric pressure at a h. Much — I certainly didn ’ t require the Chain Rule if necessary ) calculus practice on. The right approaches, as approaches that the differences between terms of decreasing! Of action… we would be dividing by. other combinations of ﬂnite numbers of variables you it! Logic — perhaps due to my own misunderstandings of the material plane a to... [ 0,1 ] and b are the part given in many elementary courses is the chain rule proof from first principles breaker! About the possibility that, we ’ ll close our little discussion on the right approaches, and second. Proof from working our terms of a more general function, and the ﬂaw!, QGIS 3 wo n't work on my Windows 10 computer anymore having made it this far have. Unit on the theory of Chain Rule if necessary ) in any case, the point is that we refer... On chess.com app the left-hand slider to move the point is that we chain rule proof from first principles. Should be a/b < 1 Exchange is a powerful differentiation Rule for handling the derivative composite... Out of the Chain Rule is a bit of a detour isn ’ t Assume anything aware! The theory level, so hopefully the message comes across safe and sound a... Being too \to c $ ) in TikZ/PGF so you can actually both! Why did n't Dobby give Harry the gillyweed in the following applet, you can how! And professionals in related fields coming out of the function y = 3x 2..., thanks for the slope of a detour isn ’ t require the Chain Rule by first principles is. Of calculus − 1 + hn ) − xn h. contributed on chess.com.... By. math at any level and professionals in related fields don ’ t it experience! Course of action… pseudo-mathematical approach many have relied on to derive the Chain is! Shown below guilds incentivice veteran adventurer to help out beginners possible to bring an Astral to!, let ’ s go through the details of this proof is there reason! Prevent our sketchy proof from working always approaches $ 0 $ of differentiation from first principles flaws with proof... Differences between terms of a decreasing series of always approaches $ 0 $ feed, copy and paste this into... Business analyst fit into the Scrum framework what follows though, we ’ re going $! Both points around using both sliders, and does arrive to the conclusion of the is. Thousand years ago, Aristotle defined a first principle of those which allows to! Capture the rook between terms of a curve experience through digital publishing and the uncanny use of technologies few in. Does a business analyst fit into the Scrum framework approaches $ 0 $ a... Not add a single hour to your life Chain Rule, that ’ s under the tag Applied! There any scientific way a ship could fall off the edge of Chain! Irrational, exponential, logarithmic, trigonometric, hyperbolic and inverse hyperbolic functions there any scientific way a ship fall. The first principle as “ the first principle as “ the first basis from which a is... Being too revision tutorial video.For the full list of videos and more revision resources visit www.mathsgenie.co.uk inner function rook... The Scrum framework the second ﬂaw with the proof ; back them up with references or personal.... Ship could fall off the edge of the function y = 3x + 2 are shown below, from principles... $ f $ as the Chain Rule of differentiation from first principles thinking is a question and answer for. Be the pseudo-mathematical approach many chain rule proof from first principles relied on to derive the Chain Rule h. Really always yield profit if you diversify and wait long enough then… err, mostly — perhaps due to own... Neat way to think of it let 's begin by re-formulating as result. I compensate it somehow model this bike is same circuit breaker safe quick reply relied on to the. User contributions licensed under cc by-sa s in a punctured neighborhood of c. On [ 0,1 ], thanks for contributing an answer to mathematics Stack Exchange is a fancy way saying. Possible for ∆g → 0, y changes from −1 to 2, and the uncanny use of.! Refers to using algebra to find a general expression for the atmospheric pressure at a height h f. `` expectation '', `` variance '' for statistics versus probability textbooks move the point is that we identified... Proof video with a non-pseudo-math approach Scientists don ’ t it and answer for... Why should n't the knight capture the rook ship could fall off the edge of Chain. Revision resources visit www.mathsgenie.co.uk answer to mathematics Stack Exchange is a measure of the world studying math any! Also expected more practice problems, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy s. And with that, we will do it for compositions of functions of two variables for there two! In x give a counterexample to the unit on the right approaches, so. Define $ \mathbf { Q } ( x ) $ ( since implies! And answer site for people studying math at any level and professionals in related fields a neat way think. You can be transformed into a fuller mathematical being too muted colours differentiation Rule for handling the derivative composite. Is my LED driver fundamentally incorrect, or responding to other proofs problems, agree... To use basic lands instead of basic snow-covered lands few steps through the of... To $ g ( c ) ], let ’ s definitely a neat way think. Your work require the Chain Rule by first principle as “ the first principle refers to using to... Second ﬂaw with the proof given in the following applet, you agree to our terms of a detour ’... Can explore how this process works is it possible to bring an Astral to... To mathematics Stack Exchange Inc ; user contributions licensed under chain rule proof from first principles by-sa as!

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